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Moulard ducks are interspecific hybrids that are obtained as a result of work on crossing the drake of a musky duck and ordinary domestic ducks, the breeds of which can be represented by Peking, Organpington, Rouen or white aloe. The name comes from the English word muscovy - "musky" and the word mallard, which translates as "mallard."
Domestic muleards are outwardly completely unlike a goose, and are hybrids that are not capable of reproducing offspring. Such poultry is attractive in terms of high productivity. Among other things, the characteristics and description of mulards are able to surprise with a variety of stains, so such ducks are often the real pride of poultry farmers and decoration of the compound.
The color of the feathers is most often dark, but there are also white individuals with the presence of a characteristic dark spot on the surface of the head.
Breeding duck mullards allowed to correct the following disadvantages of thoroughbred poultry:
Most often, females of domestic mullards are raised for slaughter in order to obtain tasty and very nutritious meat in a short time, and males with the aim of obtaining foie gras, so many poultry farmers have called this poultry a duck. Proper home breeding is easy even for beginner poultry farmers.
Mulard ducks are favorably distinguished by good endurance, easily adaptable to almost any growing conditions, have excellent disease resistance and are characterized by an increased survival rate of chicks. Such a bird not only has high productivity, but also gives less fatty and very tasty, nutritious meat. A definite plus is the excellent calmness of both males and females, and their cleanliness.
Mulattos or mulards are very much in demand in the conditions of homestead poultry farming and small-scale farming due to early maturity and high quality indicators of meat products. Proper maintenance and high-quality feeding of such ducks allows you to quickly get a marketable carcass. On average, in a couple of months the bird grows to slaughter weight. Usually, adult bird weight at this age reaches 3.5-4.0 kg.
The same cost of feed allows you to get a higher meat yield. Farmers also practice forced feeding when kept in fairly tight cells in order to obtain a large fatty liver for foie gras. In about two and a half months, moulards molt, which is accompanied by a loss of muscle mass and a decrease in the quality characteristics of meat, so slaughter should be done before the molting period or about a couple of weeks after it.
Despite the fact that it is quite easy to breed mullards in domestic poultry farming, it is necessary to properly feed the bird from the first days of life to the slaughter age.
Ducklings that have just been born are unaccustomed to eat on their own, so in the first days they will have to be taught to eat. Currently, pharmacies are selling a special mixture for feeding chicks at home, which makes it easier to self-breeding mulard. It is allowed to feed ducklings with porridge based on crushed rice or millet, with the addition of mashed hard-boiled eggs. Such porridge in warm form is poured onto the mixture, rather dark surfaces, which allows the chicks to easily see it.
On about the third day, the ducklings get used to eating on their own, which allows you to enter into the diet shredded nettle leaves or chopped dandelion greens. After the bird is two weeks old, you can enrich the food with boiled and mashed potatoes, low-fat cottage cheese and milk. A good result is the use of pond duckweed. Until the age of 30 days, feeding is carried out three times a day, after which the bird switches to two meals a day. It should be remembered that clean water for drinking ducklings should always be available.
Adult individuals raised in domestic poultry should receive not only good nutrition, but also special mineral complexes. For feeding adults, special compound feeds, wheat and corn are used. Mineral fertilizing can be represented by crushed eggshell, chalk, limestone and shells, poured into special feeders.
Small gravel crumb is necessary for homemade mulards for a complete digestion process. Always and always within walking distance there should be clean water, which is used by the bird not only for drinking, but also for rinsing the beak. It is best to purchase deep, but not very wide drinkers. In the diet, it is necessary to include baker's yeast at the rate of one gram per adult. Enrichment of the diet with wheat bran, boiled meat and fish waste and potatoes, meat and bone meal also has a good effect on weight gain.
To preserve the newly hatched ducklings, first of all, you need to take care of the correct, most comfortable temperature regime in the room. In the first five days, temperature indicators should be approximately 26aboutFROM. It is important to establish heat sources with a temperature of 27-30 aboutFROM. After the ducklings are a week old, the room temperature can be gradually reduced to 18aboutC. degrees.
Equally important for growing poultry is the quality of the litter, in the form of which dry hay or straw can be used. Lighting in the first days should be around the clock. Only from a week old age can the lighting time be gradually reduced to 16-17 hours. On warm and sunny days, little ducklings at the age of ten days can be regularly released for a walk.
The adult duck, which is called a mulard, in its maintenance practically does not differ from the conditions created for growing any other breed of poultry. At night, they need to provide an enclosed space that will protect the mulard from atmospheric precipitation and night cold. The average area of such premises for each individual should be about 0.30 square meters. In addition, a very good result is the arrangement of a fenced area for walking at the rate of a square meter per adult. Moolards respond positively to the presence of a natural or artificial body of water on the territory of the range.
Commercial breeding of mullards is very popular in European countries, where they are massively grown to produce liver. However, to breed this valuable bird in a homestead economy is also not difficult even for beginner poultry farmers. It is possible to breed such a bird at the home compound by crossing the Peking duck and the musky drake. Quite often the reverse combination is used, based on the crossing of a musky duck with a Beijing drake. In order for the withdrawal to be successful, you should focus on following the following rules:
Hatching eggs should be collected within a week. Ducklings can be hatched both using a special incubator and under hens. The percentage of output under the hen is an order of magnitude higher. The nest must be prepared in a timely manner by placing it in a calm and quiet place where the hen will not be exposed to irritating external factors.
Experienced poultry farmers recommend that clean wooden crates be set aside for arranging the nest, but it is also possible to enclose a corner in the house. A layer of litter, represented by hay or high-quality straw, is laid at the bottom of the nest. Under each hen, you can lay no more than two dozen eggs. After about ten days, it is advisable to clear the eggs on a portable ovoscope by checking fertility rates. Transparent eggs without a circulatory vascular network are unfertilized and must be removed from the nest. The presence of a blood ring may be a sign of fetal death. Such eggs also cannot be left in the nest.
The brood hen periodically leaves the nest to eat or drink, so the feeder and drinker should be installed at a fairly close distance to the nest. It is very important to put a bowl of water for swimming. Wet plumage allows you to moisten the surface of the eggs, which improves hatchability. Ducklings hatch in a month. The percentage of hatchability under the brood most often varies between 80-100%. When using an incubator, the maximum hatchability rarely exceeds 50-60%. Further viability of poultry will depend on compliance with conditions of detention and quality