Fittonia: characteristics of species and features of cultivation



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Fittonia (Fittonia) belongs to the genus of South American plants from the Acanthus family, and is represented by four decorative foliage species. Fittonia care has a number of features that are very important to observe at all stages of the growing season.

Fittonia: general characteristics and types

The herbaceous perennial has superficial roots and creeping shoots, which are very easily rooted in nodes. The stem part is not too high. The aerial part is characterized by branching and thick pubescence, which has a silvery color on young shoots, and greenish on old shoots.

The leaves are oval-elliptical in shape, with an average length of 60 mm. Matte, greenish-olive leaves and bright pink or silver streaks are located on small petioles. The plant blooms with small yellow flowers that do not have any decorative appeal. Flowers gather in spike-shaped inflorescences and are covered in the lower part by a large bract.

Species and varieties

Characteristic and Description

Giant

Tall erect flower with large leaves of dark green color, on the surface of which mesh carmine-red veins

Vershaffelt

Groundcover type rare houseplant, characterized by easy pubescence of the stem part and foliage covered with pink veins

Silver-vein or white-veined

Foliage culture has erect stems, oval green leaves with silver-white veins

Perseus

A undersized bush with pronounced red veins that stand out against the background of dark green foliage

Nana

Varietal feature is the formation of leaves 25 mm long and pronounced mesh veins on the outside of the foliage

"Skeleton"

The so-called "luminous" variety, with intense olive stain and netted red veins

"Minima"

Small-leaved variety popular in indoor floriculture, characterized by bright streaks of silver

"Aogironer"

A characteristic difference is the dark gray staining of the leaves with the presence of silver filamentous veins on the surface

Josan

Varietal feature is a bright emerald foliage with thick, practically closing veins of bright pink color

Numerous varieties are represented by plants with white veins and leaves, often with jagged edges "White Anne" and "Purple vein". Popular in indoor floriculture are pink-streaked varieties "Juanita" and "Josan"as well as red streaks "Red Anne" and "Fortissimo".

Botanical Description of Väffaffelt Fitton

Under natural conditions, this species grows in tropical moist forest zones in Peru and Bolivia, as well as in some areas of Colombia. The undersized decorative perennial has highly branched and pubescent stems., which are located in close proximity to the ground, due to which reproduction occurs.

The foliage is large and oval, with an average length of 7-8 cm with a width of 43-45 mm. The base of the leaves is rounded or almost heart-shaped. The apical part also has a rounding. Dark green or greenish-olive foliage is opposite and has carmine-red veins.

Photo gallery





How to care for fittonia

How to plant fittonia

Many amateur gardeners prefer planting Fittonia seeds.. You can plant a decorative culture yourself with seed material in May. At the bottom of the flower pot, you need to fill in expanded clay drainage, and then pour in advance prepared nutrient soil substrate.

When making the planting mixture yourself, you need to use turf and coniferous soil, as well as peat crumbs and clean medium-grained sand. Drainage and planting substrate must be decontaminated in an oven at high temperature. Seeds are planted in well-moistened soil and sprinkled lightly on top.. Crops need to be covered with a film before emergence.

Further care consists in systematic irrigation measures, allowing to maintain the soil in a stable moistened state. The optimum temperature should be 22-25aboutC. Seedlings need to be provided with sufficient lighting and the negative effects of drafts should be completely eliminated. After the appearance of three to five true leaves, seedlings dive. Transplantation is performed in separate shallow flower pots.

Phytonia propagation technology by cuttings

It is very easy to propagate the decorative foliage on your own. Despite the fact that some species are preferable to propagate by dividing the bush or layering, the easiest indoor phytonia is propagated by ordinary cuttings. A quality stalk must necessarily have about three to five leaves.

Such a segment of the stem is cut with a clean and sharp tool, and then rooted in well-moistened sand or a fairly light nutrient soil under a film cover or glass. It is imperative to provide rooting plants with a temperature range of 26-28 aboutC. Subject to reproduction technology, the rooting periods are one and a half months.

If necessary, perform the division, the plant is divided in the process of transplantation. A good result is given to the use for propagation of stem branches, which are sprinkled with moist soil. After rooting occurs, the shoot is separated and transplanted into a separate planting tank.

How to transplant Fittonia

Fittonia care at home

In order to maintain the high decorativeness of the indoor perennial, very important provide the culture with proper care throughout all stages of growth and development.

Temperature, humidity and lighting

Indoor plants require bright and diffused lighting. Direct sunlight should be avoided. and perform shading if necessary. In winter, a flower pot with a plant is best placed on the southern windows, and in spring and summer - on the western or eastern window. On the northern windows, the plant stretches and is able to quickly lose its decorative appearance.

The plant belongs to the category of thermophilic perennials, and in summer the optimal temperature regime is 22-25aboutC, and in winter - at the level of 18-20aboutC. Culture needs protection against drafts and temperature changes, and it is also necessary to ensure high air humidity by frequent spraying or keeping in terrariums.

Soil and planting requirements

For growing Fittonia, preference should be given to loose substrates, which include sod, heather or coniferous and peaty soil, as well as sand mixed in a ratio of 1: 1: 0.5: 0.5. The flower pot must be low, but wide enough, which is explained by the surface root system of the plant.

Dressing and watering a flower

A long-term decorative-leafy culture needs to be fed twice a month in the spring and summer with special flower complex mineral or organic fertilizers, bred in half dose. In winter, plants do not need additional fertilizing. Water the culture as necessary, with standing water at room temperature.

Fittonia rejuvenation and transplantation

Transplantation is carried out annually in the early spring. Drainage is poured into the bottom of the pot. The flower pot must be of high quality. Simultaneously with transplanting, the shoots are shortened, which are extended in the winter. From time to time, a perennial that has lost its decorativeness needs to be rejuvenated. Such an event is carried out in the spring every three to four years.

How to care for a plant in winter

In winter, the plant does not require special care. Watering should be reduced to a minimum, and top dressing is eliminated completely. Particular attention should be paid to creating comfortable microclimatic conditions. It is required to protect the perennial from drafts and waterlogging, as well as too dry air.





Optimum conditions for flowering and the reasons for its absence

Despite the fact that the flowering of Fittonia is not of decorative value, the absence of such a phase may indicate significant errors in care, which may even cause the death of a perennial culture:

  • too abundant irrigation in the winter or use for cold and cold water for irrigation;
  • the presence in the room for growing too cold air or sudden temperature changes;
  • neglect of periodic anti-aging measures and the growth of shoots of room culture;
  • excessive fertilizer application or vice versa, lack of nutrition and improper composition of top dressings;
  • excessive dryness of the air in the room or the location of the plant under direct sunlight.

How to water fittonia

Quite often, the cause of the lack of flowering is the depletion of plants due to the defeat of diseases or plant parasites such as thrips, scabies, spider mites and mealybugs.

Fittonia is a delightful perennial ornamental plant that can serve as a very attractive and modern decoration of any room. However, the need to ensure high-quality and competent care for the culture at different stages of development, make Fittonia not a very popular plant among beginner or inexperienced gardeners.



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